Jim Peck, seated, talks with a Justice Dept. representative and Ben Cox on the \"freedom plane\" to New Orleans, May 15, 1961. Photo by Theodore Gaffney. Oxford University Press hide caption
Others were less fortunate. Several white men attacked Ike Reynolds, kicking and stomping him before heaving his semiconscious body into a curbside trash bin. In the confusion, the mob also attacked a number of bystanders misidentified as Freedom Riders. One of the victims was actually a Klansman named L. B. Earle, who had the misfortune of coming out of the men's room at the wrong time. Attacked by fellow Klansmen who failed to recognize him, Earle suffered several deep head gashes and ended up in the hospital. Another victim of the mob, a twenty-nine-year-old black laborer named George Webb, was assaulted after he entered the baggage room with his fiancée, Mary Spicer, one of the regular passengers on the freedom bus from Atlanta. The last person to leave the bus, Spicer was unaware of the melee inside the station until she and Webb encountered a group of pipewielding rioters in the baggage area. One of the men, undercover FBI informant Gary Thomas Rowe, told Spicer to \"get the hell out of here,\" and she escaped harm, running into the street for help. But Rowe and three others, including an NSRP member, immediately surrounded Webb and proceeded to pummel him with everything from their fists to a baseball bat. Webb fought back but was soon overwhelmed as several more white men joined in. Dozens of others looked on, some yelling, \"Kill the nigger.\" But moments later the assault was interrupted by Red Self, one of the plainclothes detectives on the scene, who grabbed Rowe by the shoulder and told him it was time to go. \"Get the boys out of here,\" he ordered. \"I'm ready to give the signal for the police to move in.\"
The students kept their spirits up in jail by singing freedom songs. Out of frustration, Connor drove them back up to the Tennessee line and dropped them off, saying, \"I just couldn't stand their singing.\" They immediately returned to Birmingham.
This established a pattern followed by subsequent Freedom Rides, most of which traveled to Jackson, where the Riders were arrested and jailed. Their strategy became one of trying to fill the jails. Once the Jackson and Hinds County jails were filled to overflowing, the state transferred the Freedom Riders to the infamous Mississippi State Penitentiary (known as Parchman Farm). Abusive treatment there included placement of Riders in the Maximum Security Unit (Death Row), issuance of only underwear, no exercise, and no mail privileges. When the Freedom Riders refused to stop singing freedom songs, prison officials took away their mattresses, sheets, and toothbrushes. More Freedom Riders arrived from across the country, and at one time, more than 300 were held in Parchman Farm.
The Freedom Riders helped inspire participation in subsequent civil rights campaigns, including voter registration throughout the South, freedom schools, and the Black Power movement. At the time, most black Southerners had been unable to register to vote, due to state constitutions, laws and practices that had effectively disfranchised them since the turn of the 20th century. For instance, white administrators supervised reading comprehension and literacy tests that highly educated black people could not pass.
As those inside the church that night listened to testimonials about courage and commitment and sang hymns and freedom songs, a white mob began gathering outside. By nightfall the mob had grown larger, and had begun yelling racial epithets and hurling rocks at the church windows.
In 2021, in a surprise pardon by then-President Donald Trump, Harris was granted his freedom after spending 33 years behind bars. While many thought Death Row Records had shut down permanently, Harris went right back to work once freed, partnering with Snoop Dogg as the COO of the all-new Death Row Records.
\"In her work with SNCC and with the Mississippi freedom Democratic Party, she connected starvation of people in Sunflower County, not only to pressure to migrate but also to the pressure not to register to vote.\"
For many in Detroit, the new relationships they forge between land, food and freedom are response to the housing foreclosure crisis, the closing public schools, the water shutoff crisis, and issues of policing.\"
So farm to freedom delves into how African Americans utilizing foodways will experience greater liberation from the traumas of enslavement, racism, inequity, injustice, poverty, land loss, and food insecurity. 59ce067264